The museum building, as well as the display cases, were designed by the Polish architect Aleksander Szymkiewicz specifically for the silk museum in 1890-92, and it has survived to this day without any major changes. The building is distinguished by its original architecture, which is a fusion of various traditions. Its facade features elements typical to Classicism, Gothic and Islamic arts. The interior includes designed elements displaying silk-related themes. Since 2006, the building has been recognized as a cultural heritage monument of national importance.
Since 2020 Tbilisi Development Fund has been carrying out museum building restoration works. The project is co-funded by The International Association of Francophone Mayors.